Skip to main content

Full text of "Manila, the pearl of the Orient; guide book to the intending visitor"

See other formats





^=^= DD 

— — CD 







1 — 


Manila Merchants Association 

^gl Manila, the Pearl of the Orient 







•J |.|MI 

I aaaNiaiaiHdwvd i;. 
u .^.^ .. *^ 





















•.^^ Introduction ^ 

l/) Manila, "The Pearl of the Orient" 7 

' Manila Bay ' 7 

Q Cavite -- 8 

V The harbor — - 8 

::; The East and West - 9 

A glimpse into the past - - 9 

fU Legaspi and Urdaneta 10 

m Foreign invaders - - 10 

^ The city ... - - 11 

Bridges 12 

The Bridge of Spain - 12 

Santa Cruz Bridge ..- 12 

San Juan Bridge - 13 

How to get about Manila 14 

Intramuros - 15 

Fort Santiago 16 

City gates - 16 

Churches .- 17 

The Ayuntamiento - — 19 

Extramuros — 

The Luneta -.- - 20 

The Botanical Gardens 22 

Manila markets . 22 

The ihanufacture of cigars 24 

River life - 25 

Cockpits 26 

Among the cemeteries 27 

Monuments of Manila 29 

Native business life 31 

Churches without the walls 32 




Manila, "The Pearl of the Orient"— Continued. 

Side trips 35 

Santa Ana 35 

San Juan 35 

Malabon 35 

Pasay 36 

La Loma 36 

Fort William McKinley 37 

Cavite - - 38 

Laguna de Bay 38 

Montalban - 39 

Baguio -10 

The southern islands 42 

Conclusion 43 

General information : 

List of books on the Philippines 45 

Climate and health 45 

Mean temperature, years 1880-1900 46 

Customs and baggage regulations 47 

Table of money values 49 

Railway communication 50 

Steamship information 50 

Police and fire protection 53 

Schools 53 

Directory of principal places: 

Leading hotels -. 55 

Banks 55 

Steamship offices 56 

Cable offices 56 

Post and telegraph offices 56 

Clubs 56 

Athletic clubs : 56 

Boards of trade - 57 

Consular representatives 57 

Theaters 58 

Museums 59 

Libra rv - 59 


COLUMBUS, saluted across the centuries by Carlyle 
in a famous passage as "Brave sea captain, ISTorse 
sea king, Columbus my hero, roA'alist sea king of 
all," while he failed in his enterprise to discover a new 
route to the East Indies, did something even greater in 
his discovery of America. Nor can it be said that he really 
failed in his endeavor to find the Philippines, or such other 
islands of the Indies as his imagination pictured would 
burst in splendor upon his vision after long and weary 
days across a heaving, endless, suurscorched sea. From 
the land which his heroic faith gave to a civilized world, 
strong sons have arisen whose sail track the ocean toward 
those shores to which his spirit yearned, and across the 
deep the two are now as one. Thus, while to Magellan 
must be given the credit for the first discovery of the Phil- 
ippines, in a peculiar manner it may be said that to Colum- 
bus is due their rediscovery. And, by a strange ruling 
of Fate, the land to which he gave birth has now fallen 
heir, by the fortunes of war, to the oriental jewel in the 
crown of tluit country which served as foster mother to 
his proud conquests by discovery. 

Hernandez Magellan, who is known as the discoverer 
of the Philippines, was spurred by the failure of Columbus 
to find the long-sought-for western route to the East Indies, 
and realized what Columbus aspired to. Passing through 
the straits north of Cape Horn which now bear his name, 
and emerging into the broad Pacific, he sailed northwest 
until finally the fronded ])alms and sandy shores of the 



Antilles of the East broke upon his vision and rewarded 
his dauntless faith and strong courage. 

All honor to him who found this beautiful spot; more 
the honor to them who held it; praise to those who now 
appear as the assigns of the sires who introduced civilization 
and religion as attendant factors in the consummation of 
their desire to raise a child people to man's estate. 

But these factors are but the subject of a flitting thought 
in this material world of to-day. "Unsight, unseen," is a 
mythical condition of aforetime. The traveler of to-day is 
a sight seeker. Man has made much of interesting history 
in providing him with Philippine attractions. Odd to look 
upon, many of the attractive features of to-day take an 
added interest when the tales they hold are known aforehand. 

The Orient is visited every year by thousands of tourists, 
but few of them avail themselves of the opportunity of 
seeing the countless beauties of these sun-kissed isles or 
the wondrous treasures, the picturesque spots, and the 
historical monuments with which j\Ianila, the capital of 
the farthest eastern possession of the United States, is so 
liberally endowed. The reason h that so few people know 
anything about the country. Many of them are in the 
position of Dooley's friend Hennessy — "they hardly know 
whether the Philippines are islands or canned goods." 

With the idea of attracting visitors from all over the 
world to our shores, that they may, while enjoying the beau- 
ties of our scenery, beholding our monuments and quaint 
old relics, coming in contact with oriental life in a veritable 
Dreamland, also come to realize the wonderful richness of 
the country, its vast undeveloped resources, and the oppor- 
tunities for profitable investment, the Manila Merchants' 
Association submits this volume to the public as being in 
a measure descriptive of Manila, "The Pearl of the Orient." 

A yr iVN"ILx\ is the most interesting city in the Orient. 

IVX Within its moss-covered walls, hoary with the scars 
of centuries, are contained a priceless collection of objects 
of high historic value, l)eautiful shrines, and age-defying 
templesy-things which the tourist in his search for the 
strangely new, strangely old, will discover in no otlier 
part of the world. 

^M^anila Bay. 

^ Entering Manila Bay, the ship plows steadily past the 
/ Island of Corregidor, standing like a grim sentinel guard- 
ing the narrow entrance,''and after steaming thirty miles 
througli the blue waters of the bay anchors behind the 
newly built In'eakwater in front of the Luneta. The 
harbor has been extensively improved since American 
occupation. An inner basin has been constructed in 
which the largest ships of the world can anchor with 
safety, and a number of wharves are being built at 
which these vessels can come alongside and receive and 
discharge cargo. When the port works are completed 
Manila will have tlie finest and safest harbor in the Far 
East, and will be, because of her geographical position — 



^M^anila Bay. 

at (lie very doonvav of Asia, midway between the rich, 
newly opening territories of north China and the thickly 
jiojiulated possessions c.i Enghmd in India — the most 
important seaport in the Orient. 


( The trip up tlie bay introduces some interesting sights. 
The Bataan Mountains loom up on the left, forming a 
gigantic barrier between the bay and sea, and to the 
right, low lying, is the naval towTi of Cavite./ It was 
in and aljout these waters that on May 1, 1898, Admiral 
Dewey and his fleet introduced the United States on 
the oriental stage, where for years to come it will play 
a leading part in the great drama of the Far East. "Yoii 
may fire when ready, Gridley," was the order which for 
all time shattered the hopes of Spain for oriental power, 
and with the sinking of lier war ships a rule of more 
than three hundred years passed away. 

'^he Harbor. 

Continuing up the bay Manila is brought into closer 
view, ancV^the domes and towers of the tree-embowered 
city contrast their subdued colors with the vivid green of 
a luxuriant tropical foliage. The first view is charming, 
and as the picture unfolds to the eye, disclosing vistas 
of tree-shaded drives, walls and buildings medieval \n 
architecturei^a harbor crowded with shipping, and tlio 
swarms of harbor and river craft with their motley, 
picturesque crews,/'The Pearl of the Orient" seems to 
be a name justly applied to the capital of America's new 


^he East and West. 

Manila is a city of contrasts. It is of the East, yet 
the young and vigorous West seems to have discovered 
in it a country in which great changes are to be wrought. 
The American found conditions of "Long years ago in 
old Madrid," and the quietness and dreaminess of the 
old to^vn made him uneasy. To-day the bustle of New 
York and Chicago are to be found contrasting strangely 
with the slow, sleepy existence of an Old AVorld. Elec- 
tric cars rush througly streets that for centuries had been 
traversed by no swifter traffic than the slow, ambling 
carabao or the jogging native pony.y It is the old and 
the new, hand in hand. 

The descendants of the first conquerors and discoverers 
have been superseded by another race, their children, 
in a way, inasmuch as through an adopted child, 
Columbus, the land from which the new race came 
was discovered. And this mixture of the West with the 
East lends to the place a charm indefinable. 

yl Glimpse Into the T^ast. 

As one permits his thoughts to wander back through 
the dim four centuries past, what stirring scenes pass 
in review before him! First came the daring Magellan, 
when in the month of March, 1521, he and his bearded 
men made land near the coast of Surigao. Kneeling 
on the sand they gave thanks to God, and a warrior friar 
conducted the first mass before the awe-stricken natives. 
Then followed the stirring adventures of the little band 
on the Island of Mactan, near Cebu, and the death of 
their redoubtable leader in a trifling tribal war. Fifty 
years later the youthful Salcedo and De Goiti with their 


Jl Glimpse Into the T^ast. 

fifteen paraos worked their way slowly up tlie bay to the 
present site of ]\Ianila. Then came a treacherous attack 
by Rajah Soliman, the grim results being marked by a 
beacli strewn Avith dead and a village in ashes. 

Legaspi and Urdanela. 

Then came the laying out of the city, much as it is 
to-day, the erection of a wooden fort at Santiago, and the 
ferocious attack by tlie old Chinese pirate, Li-ma-hong, 
with his sixty ships and 4,000 warriors. Hard and grim 
was war in those days, when fighting was done at close 
range and mercy unknown. It was bullet, arrow, sword, 
and deadly stinkpot, and the little garrison was saved 
only when the Chinese horde fled Just at the moment 
when its victory was assured. 

Foreign Invaders. 

For years and years the continuous raids of the terrible 
Moro pirates were a constant menace, and the frequent 
uprisings and massacres among the natives and Chinese 
gave cause for constant alarm. / The square-built war 
ships of the Dutch were constantly on tlie watch for the 
outgoing and incoming treasure galleons of Spain, and 
the sea was fraught with danger awaiting the merchant 
marine, f Through all these exciting times the work of 
building a lasting city Avith walls that would insure its 
safety went untiringly on. Then there came a day in 
September, 1762, when. Just before sundown, thirteen 
ships, flying the flag of England, dropped anchor in 
Cavite Harbor. Wliat consternation must have followed 
when it was learned that war had been declared between 
Great Britain and Spain and that immediate surrender 


Foreign Invaders. 

of the city was demandGcl ! The "No surrender" reply 
of tlie small garrison of 600 men and the terrible siege 
that followed by the G,000 British made bloody days 
about old Manila. The walls were breached and a last 
desperate stand made at Fort Santiago. This was of 
no avail ; the Spaniards were compelled to surrender and 
the city was given over to sack. For a year and a half 
Manila was held by the British; then came peace with 
the payment of an indemnity, and the banner of Castile 
again floated over the ramparts of the city. 

Since then there have been times during the last cen- 
tury when the Filipinos themselves have arisen against 
their masters, and, in a feeble way, sought to break the 
chains binding them to Spain. But none of these revo- 
lutions proved successful. A succession of these petty 
revolts happened from time to time until 1898, when the 
fortunes of war relieved Spain of her Far Eastern pos- 
sessions and placed the destinies of the Philippines in 
the hands of the United States. 

"Uhe City. 

Manila is divided by the Pasig Eiver into the north 
and the south sides ; on the south bank are the old Walled 
City and the districts of Ermita, ]\Ialate, and Paco, while 
on the north side are the Escolta, the principal business 
section, and the districts of Binondo, San Nicolas, Tondo, 
Santa Cruz, Quiapo, and Sampaloc. The Escolta is the 
main business artery of Manila, and on it are located 
the chief business houses of the city. The junction of 
the Escolta and the Bridge of Spain is the principal 
business center, and at this point cars may be taken for 
nearly any part of the city or suburbs. 



Traffic finds moans of crossing the Pasig River by four 
different bridges. The handsome and massive Bridge of 
Spain, which leads from the Escolta on the north side 
to the Paseo de Magallanes on the south side, is the one 
which receives the bulk of the city's great traffic, and 
thousands of people of all creeds and nationalities daily 
crowd its broad roadway going to and from their homes. 

Tpie Bridge of Spain. — Aside from its practical uses, 
the Bridge of Spain is one of the three oldest structures 
within the confines of the city, and stands to-day a strong 
and picturesque monument to the ability and engineering . 
skill of the early Spanish engineers. Its massive arches 
of stone supporting a paved roadway have withstood the 
floods and typhoons of nearly three centuries, and their 
pleasing lines and soft coloring blend delightfully with 
the verdure-garbed walls of the old city. Earthquakes 
have conspired against it, but only one, that of 1863, witli 
success. Then the two middle spans gave way, and for 
twelve years the inhabitants of Manila crossed on a 
pontoon structure laid athwart the river from the Maga- 
llanes Monument to Calle Rosario. The original bridge 
itself was reared on pontoons, but in 1630 Governor Niiio 
de Tabora replaced it with the present erection, and so 
well did he build that the years of constant traffic have 
failed to impair its strength or usefulness. Since Amer- 
ican occupation the roadway has twice been widened 
to accommodate the increased traffic. 

Santa Cruz Bridge. — The new Santa Cruz Bridge 
grew out of the demands for another central place for 
crossing the Pasig, and its construction has greatly re- 
lieved the congestion of traffic which a few years since 



was a source of annoyance and frequent danger in the 
crowded Escolta. It is the work of American engineers, 
and was completed in 1902. 

Ahove tlie Santa Cruz Bridge the river is crossed first 
by a suspension bridge, the property of individuals who 
derive a revenue from it by charging a small toll for 
crossings; and still farther up by the Ayala Bridge, a 
new viaduct, which was recently completed to replace the 
old crooked, complicated structure of early days. 

The numerous esteros throughout the city are crossed 
at various points by more than fifty small bridges, most 
of these having been built under the Spanish regime. 
They are usually of solid stone and of a substantial 

San Juan Bridge. — Of more than passing interest to 
the traveler or resident is the bridge of San Juan at the 
end of the Santa Mesa car line. It was near this place — 
very new, liistorically, it is true — that the first shot of 
the Philippine insurrection was fired on the night of 
February 4, 1898. The opening of the conflict between 
the insurgent and American forces, a conflict which was 
to extend for many months, has been widely described. 
It was across the old stone bridge of San Juan that the 
Imllets first sped on their deadly mission. For some 
time previous to the opening of the San Juan fight, 
relations between the two forces were anything but satis- 
factory. The sentries of both armies occupied positions 
at opposite ends. of the bridge, and on the evening men- 
tioned an intoxicated officer of the insurgent forces drew 
the fire of the American sentry. This was at once re- 
turned, and the Philippine insurrection was on. 


How to Get About Manila. 

There are four methods which may be employed in 
getting about the city. Conveyances may be hired from 
the many livery stal)les at a price of from one peso and 
a half to four pesos per hour. The lower price secures 
a two-wheeled calesa, rubber tired, with one horse; for 
the higher price one may have a rubber-tired victoria 
or some other four-wheeled rig. This of course includes 
a driver, and such employees as are furnished by the 
stables are, as a rule, fairly intelligent and speak English 
to some extent. Automobiles are also rented out by 
some of the livery stables at prices averaging about six 
pesos per hour. 

A second way will be found in employing a public 
rig, either carromata or victoria. Such conveyances are 
numerous. For the former the rate of charge is forty 
centavos for the first hour and thirty centavos for eacli 
succeeding hour. For the public victoria the rate is 
eighty centavos for the first hour and fifty centavos for 
each succeeding hour. These rates are established by 
municipal ordinance. 

The third way is by electric street railway, which is in 
operation throughout the difl:erent parts of the city and 
its environments. The service is good, and a tariff of 
twelve centavos is cliarged for a first-class fare, while ten 
centavos is charged for a second-class fare. 

The fourth way is that of walking. This, however, 
is a method not popular in the Philippine Islands, excepf 
in the early morning or in the evening, and other means 
of transportation are to be advised. There are parts of 
the city — Intramuros, for instance — where the distances 
between interesting points are short and walking will 
be found entertaining and profitable. 



/ With the walls of Intramuros is associated the entire 
history of the Philippine Islands, and legend and story 
are wrought with the very stones. Shot and shell have 
shrieked over these hastions, and deeds of lust and blood 
have been enacted behind these gateways. / 

/ The initial work on the walls was done in the year 
1591, but not until 1873 was the task of construction 
completed. Thousands upon thousands of human lives 
were sacrificed in the labor of rearing them, and millions 
of treasure were expended ere they were brought to their 
present condition of strength and beauty. The first work 
was done on the Avails of old Fort Santiago, and forms 
a part of the present-day structure. The materials used 
in construction were volcanic tufa, earth, stone, and 
tiles, and the thickness varies from a yard to forty feet^ 
Twice before American occupation were the old walls 
assaulted ; first/a poAVcrful force of Chinese traders made 
a stubborn attack in 1603 and met with repulse and 
disaster. / Again in 1762 the English led an attack on 
the city w4iich was successful ; this led to a brief occupa- 
tion of the city by their forces. 

The walls until 1905, Avere surrounded by a moat of 
considerable depth, but on account of its insanitary con- 
dition this Avas then filled in by the Government. The 
task Avas accomplished by utilizing the silt and earth 
removed in dredging for the new harbor improvements. 

/ Built in these Avails are numerous rooms and chambers 
which in days past Avere used as cells for prisoners when 
needed. In the early days of American occupation, in 
some of these cells Avere found collections of instruments 
of torture, and human bones buried away left suggestions 



of mystery and death which will ever remain a part of 
the unwritten history of the Philippines. / 
/ Fort Santiago. — At the northwest corner of Intra- 
muros stands Fort Santiago. This, indeed, is the most 
interesting structure to be found in the Archipelago. In 
1571 the present site was occupied by a rude, primitive 
palisade of logs, built as an early protection against the 
ever-warlike ^loros and the uncivilized savages. These 
were exciting days indeed, and out of the pressing needs 
of the times grew the present battered and scarred walls 
of Santiago. It was in 1590 that Santiago de Vera, then 
governor of the Islands, caused the first stones of the 
walls to be laid, and under his successor. Governor Das- 
mariiias, the fort was completed. The inner quadrangle 
was the court of the military government of Spain and 
the most secure spot in the Philippines.^ 

The old and useless guns which for so many years had 
frowned upon friend and foe alike have now been dis- 
mantled and found their way into the junk pile and 
melting pot of the iron manufacturer. The threatening 
appearance of the old pile has disappeared, and in the 
. present time of peace the inclosure and buildings are 
utilized as military offices for the headquarters of the 
Philippines Division of the United States Army. 
/ City Gates. — The walls of Intramuros were originally 
pierced for seven gates./ Since American occupation 
this number has been increased by four new openings. 
In connection with the old gates, attention is invited to 
the following : 

The Parian entrance bears the date 1782, with the 




inscription "Puerta del Parian;" the Santa Lucia Gate 
carries over its portals the date 1781 and an elaborate 
inscription, while the Eeal Gate, completed one yeai- 
previous, bears an inscription commemorating King 
Charles of Spain and Jose de Basco, governor and 
captain-general of the Philippine Islands. 
/ At the time of construction these gates were for prac- 
tical uses, and were closed every night to guard against 
possible attack./ The ancient gear and machinery for 
lowering and raising the massive portals have long been 
in disuse, but are still to be seen lying about tlie different 

C11URCIIE8. — Manila is a city of churches. Kich in 
liistory and architecture, the large majority of these 
Avill be found within the walls of the old city. The 
distance separating them is limited, and all are within 
easy walking distance of any of the gates. Much time 
may profitably be spent in examining tlieir beauties and 
treasures, and to the student especially they present a 
most fascinating and interesting field of research. 

The oldest church to be found in the city stands at the 
corner of Calles Palacio and Real. Here the Order of 
San Agustin dedicated its first building in Spain's new 
possessions on the 24th of June, 1571. Some two years 
later this building was comjiletely destroyed by fire, and 
the present l)uilding arose from the ruins. This huge 
work was undertaken in 1599, and the structure was 
reared under the direction of Juan Marcias and the 
famous lay brother, Antonio Herrera, a son of the 
Spanish architect of the Escurial. The strength of its 
5001 0. W. 2 



massive walls is attested by the fact that they have with- 
stood all great earthquake shocks which have proved 
the ruin of so many fine buildings in times past. Within 
this church lie the remains of the celebrated discoverers, 
Salcedo and I.egaspi, whose daring genius and indomi- 
table wills wrought much of Spain's early history in these 
/ Next in point of antiquity among the churches is 
probably that of the Eecoletos. This building, completed 
early in the seventeenth century, stands at the south end 
of Calle Cabildo. The striking feature of this church 
is found in the great corner toAver, a work of wonderful 
symmetrical beauty and massive strength. / 

Of all the churches of the Philippines, the Cathedral is 
undoubtedly the most famous shrine. It stands between 
Calles Cabildo and Palacio and fronts on Plaza McKinley. 
The present building is about a quarter of a century old, 
being the successor of no less than four cathedrals, all 
of which were destroyed by fire. The architecture is 
Byzantine. It has nine entrances, three large chapels, 
and the choir and organ are situated in the middle of the 
nave. Seven years were taken in completing the present 

While externally not so imposing as many of its com- 
panions, the Church of St. Ignatius, on Calle Arzobispo, 
presents much that is beautiful. An exterior strikingly 
modern in design and execution and destitute of architec- 
tural comeliness is more than atoned for by the interior 
work of decoration, Avhich is indeed graceful and can 
not fail to charm the beholder. The scheme is wrought 



in carved molave and the design and finish of the work 
are of the highest artistic merit. Particular attention 
is called to the beautifully carved pulpit, all native 
handiwork. This cost more than five thousand pesos 
in the old Spanish days, when labor was cheap. An 
American priest is usually in attendance and ready to 
extend every courtesy to the visitor. 

The Santo Domingo Church, a stately Gothic structure, 
is well worth visiting, even if one beholds nothing but 
its beautifully carved doors. The interior is a place 
where the visitor can not fail to be impressed with the 
religious atmosphere — that mystic something which 
seems to hover about the saintly edifice. Its sacristy 
contains many objects of beauty and interest, and the 
mellow tinge of time lends a halo to the whole pile. 

The convents of Manila attached to the churches are 
treasure houses of century-old relics, for whose posses- 
sion the antiquarian would almost sell his birthright. 
Old volumes of the middle ages and paintings almost 
obliterated by time decorate the walls of these monas- 
teries, and in looking upon them one seems to be trans- 
ported back into the misty past of which they are silent 

The Ayuntamiento. — Before leaving the Walled City 
one should not fail to visit the Ayuntamiento, which 
contains the offices of the Governor-General, the Philip- 
pine Commissioners, and the Philippine Assembly. "This 
beautiful building faces on Plaza McKinley and is oppo- 
site the Cathedral. Formerly the Ayuntamiento was 
occupied by the Spanish governor-general and was the 



center of the old regime. The building extends over 
a block of ground, and within it will be found the great 
marble hall, wherein notables from all over the Avorld 
have at times been entertained, and where the first Phil- 
ippine Assembly now holds its sessions. 

Leaving the Walled City by way of one of the western 
gates the sightseer arrives on the ]\Ialecon Drive, where, 
turning to the north, a short drive brings him to the 
Pasig River and the Anda Monument. Eeturning, he 
continues along the drive and the western walls of the 
city and in a few minutes arrives at the Luneta. 


/ The Luxeta. — To the Luneta in the early evening 
all Manila goes. Here after the heat of the day, as 
evening draws on, gather all classes and conditions to 
enjoy the sea breezes and listen to the music/ discoursed 
by the Constabulary Band, one of the finest musical 
organizations in the world. 

The oval drive, inclosing two band stands surrounded 
by a velvety lawn, is thronged at this hour with thousands 
of conveyances of all descriptions, and the park is plen- 
tifully sprinkled with people of all ages and garb. Here 
under the brilliant electric lights will be found assembled 
a purely cosmopolitan crowd. There seems to be no 
country or race in the world without representatives, and 
with the Oriental especially the peculiarities of their home 
customs in dress are usually observed. 
/ Situated between the Walled City on the nortli and 



Ermita on the south, the Luneta extends along the bay 
shore between tliese two points and overlooks the entrance 
to Manila Harl)or far away to the west. As the sun 
declines, bringing into strong relief the Island of 
Corregidor, the sleeping watchdog of the bay, and 
Sforsreouslv coloring the Bataan Mountains between the 
city and the sea. the coming darkness brings into view 
the flashing lights of Cavite and the dimmer signals of 
the harbor shipping. The sight is one not soon to be 
forgotten; it is many sunsets wrapped into one, and the 
result is perfection, or as nearly so as may be found in 
any land. The beauty of the Italian sunsets has been 
sung in prose and verse ; but not in Italy nor in any other 
land are the glorious tints, the cloud effects, more beauti- 
ful than in Manila at the evening hour.^ 

Xot alone will the Luneta be remembered as a "care- 
free" spot. Here it was a few short years since that with 
startling frequency the morning sun would greet a firing 
squad of soldiers carefully guarding its quota of prisoners. 
These would be lined up with their backs toward the 
beach and fronting a line of loaded rifles. The dropping 
of a handkerchief, the hoarse roar of firearms, and debts, 
political and otherwise, had been collected at the price 
of the offender's life. Here it was that the Filipino 
patriot, Eizal, was executed on the morning of December 
30, 1896, and each year his compatriots gather on that 
day and place to do honor to his memory. It is a 
liallowed spot to the Filipino people, and it is soon to 
be marked by an imposing monument of their martyr. 



From the Luneta the return is made hy way of the 
Bagumhayan Drive, and this hrings one past the Govern- 
ment Printing Office, the Municipal Building, the Gov- 
ernment Cold Storage and Ice Plant, and the Botanical 

The Botanical Gardens. — One of the charming spots 
of Manila is the Botanical Gardens. Occupying a tract 
about ten acres in extent and fronting on the Bagum- 
hayan Drive, the Gardens afford a delightful place for 
rest and recreation, and are highly enjoyed by all classes. 
The grounds on which the gardens are located were pre- 
sented to the city by Sebastian Vidal for the establish- 
ment of a public park, and under his direction the place 
was first laid out and the work of beautifying the grounds 
entered upon. 

Since American occupation extensive improvements 
have been made, and to-day the Botanical Gardens pre- 
sent a profusion of tropical flora, valuable plants and 
trees collected from all parts of the world, and beautiful 
walks and drives wliich well repay a quiet saunter 
through them. Monday evenings the gardens are gen- 
erally crowded, as the Constabulary Band plays there 
instead of at the Luneta. 

The zoo department has been in existence but a brief 
period, yet it offers to the visitor rather an extensive 
collection of native wild animals and birds, as well as 
a number of specimens from different countries. Addi- 
tions are constantly being made to it, and the collection 
is rapidly assuming added zoological importance. 

Manila Markets. — The public market system of 



Manila embraces some eight modern market places, ail 
of which are under control of the city. These buildings 
are constructed along the latest lines, and are an impor- 
tant and interesting part of the metropolis to visit. 

To strangers the Divisoria Market, located on Plaza 
Mercado, Tondo, will undoubtedly prove of the most 
interest. It is well worth inspection. The market itself 
is one which for floor area is not surpassed by any market 
in the world, and at no other place in the Philippine 
Islands can the native life be seen in so many varied 
forms. Business in the market commences at a very 
early hour in the morning, and long before daylight the 
estero and streets leading to the big trade depot are 
crowded with a rushing, shouting mass, bringing their 
wares which are to be offered for sale during the day. 
Within the big market place everything that the Filipino 
may want or need can be purchased. From cheap jewelry 
to dried fish everything is offered in abundance, while 
elaborate displays of fresh food stuffs and fruits invite 
the appetite and tempt the pocket. 

The native Filipino buys, as a rule, only sufficient 
food for his immediate wants, and marketing with him 
is a daily occurrence. To hear the noise attending the 
chaffering between seller and purchaser, one would think 
it a most serious affair. No buyer dreams for a moment 
of paying the amount asked for an article, and the sound 
of thousands of these purchasers driving their bargains 
resolves itself into a perfect babel of noise, which at times 
seems to argue for a settlement with fists rather than by 



The best time to make a tour of the markets is early 
in the forenoon. At that time business will be found in 
full sway. A knowledge of the products of the Islands 
in the way of food stuffs can thus be acquired, and tlio 
great variety of such products displayed will certainly 
1)0 astonishing. 

Other markets are located as follows: Anda Market, 
corner Calles Anda and Solana, Intramuros; Arranque 
Market, corner Calles Paz and Arranque, Santa Cruz: 
Ilerran Market, Calle Herran, Malate; Quinta Market, 
foot of Suspension Bridge, Quiapo; Santa Ana Market, 
Plazuela, Santa Ana; and Pandacan Market, Pandacan. 

Maxufactuke of Cigars. — The most absorbing item 
of manufacturing interest in Manila is offered by the 
preparing of tobacco in its various forms for everyday 
consumption. Thousands of men, women, and children 
find occupation from early life in the handling and 
preparing of the weed narcotic, and the sight of the 
interior of one of these hives of industry will amply 
repay anyone for the time spent in such a visit. 

The almost human cigarette machine, the hundreds of 
employees, representing all ages of life, busy from early 
morn till late in tlie evening in the rush to satisfy the 
demand for the product of the Philippines in the way 
of smoking material, is a sight not soon to be forgotten. 
The manufacture of both cigars and cigarettes is a work 
of specialization, and the deftness shown by the workers 
in the different departments is. in many instances, 
nothing short of marvelous. The department into which 
one enters as a child is frequently that in which he finds 




himself at the end of his existence. Such incessant 
application develops an accuracy and facility that is 
not surpassed in any other branch of labor. 

A great number of factories, fully equipped with the 
finest and most up-to-date machinery, are situated within 
a few blocks of the heart of the city. They are easil}' 
reached by electric line or carriage. Visitors can readily 
secure permission to enter and inspect the workings of 
practically all of these places and are met with kindly 
and cordial treatment b}^ the heads of the different 

River Life. — Xo small number of |)eople in Manila 
go to make up the river population. Between fifteen 
and twenty thousand persons of different ages find their 
permanent homes on floating craft of different designs, 
known as cascos, lorchas, and bancas. While it goes 
without saying that the accommodations are not at all 
times elegant or commodious, it is quite safe to presume 
that contentment is as common among the people of the 
river and esteros as it is among their brethren of the 
shore. On board these craft persons are born, live, 
mature, marry, and die with no more fixed place of abode 
than is found on the bosom of the waters, and from all 
appearances they are quite satisfied with their lot. 

The cascos on which they live are of a pecidiar con- 
struction, and present the appearance of being hewn 
from some huge log or timber. This is accomplished 
by very nicely sizing up heavy planks and then bolting 
them together with strong staples and bolts. All frame- 
work is a1)solutelv absent, and the craft. Avhile of rather 



awkwai-d appearance, is serviceable and well adapted to 
the use for whicli it is intended. The river man is in 
a class by himself, yet he clings to many of the habits, 
likes, and dislikes of his friends ashore. No floating 
home is complete without a plentiful number of children, 
and the casco is yet to be found which does not include 
at least one fighting cock among its inhabitants. 

The numerous esteros, reaching as they do so many 
widely separated parts of the city, form important ways 
of transportation and are extensively used in carrying 
goods and heavy merchandise. It is in this occupation 
that the river people find a means of livelihood, and 
their heavy and slow craft, propelled by long bamboo 
poles in the hands of stalwart river men, form an inter- 
esting part of Manila's everyday life. 
^ CocKriTS. — The fighting cock plays no small part in 
the joj^s and tribulations of the ordinary Filipino. He 
seems to be ever present, and too frequently, indeed, is 
responsible in a large way for the financial distress of 
many a native. 

The cockpits form one of the most popular resorts for 
the Filipinos of tlie different classes on the days when 
comhates are permitted, and at that time they are filled 
to overflowing with a perspiring, excited crowd, eagerly 
following the fortunes of the birds as they struggle for 
supremacy or meet death in the ring. The gamecocks 
are fought under different methods than prevail in other 
countries. They are armed with a miniature scimiter 
fastened to one of their spurs, and this is sharpened to 
the keenness of a razor. A fiffht usuallv ends witli tlio 



death of at least one of the birds, and frequently both 
cocks are killed in the fray. Much time and care is 
spent in training and rearing these fighters, and the 
courage possessed by them is wonderful. 

Gambling is the one great vice attendant at the cockpit, 
and without this feature it is quite likely that interest 
in the sport would lose its popularity. A number of 
these cockpits are to be found on the outskirts of Manila, 
the largest of which, Maypajo, is located near Caloocan. / 

Among the Cemeteries. — Owing to the flat, marshy 
character of the country surrounding Manila, the custom 
of placing the dead in graves dug in the earth has not 
been generally adopted as a means of final disposition 
of the city's dead. From these conditions arose the 
system of rearing thick walls of stone inclosing an area 
of greater or lesser extent, and in these walls niches were 
Imilt in which the bodies were placed. It was this rather 
strange method of burial that occasioned the remark of 
a former governor-general, when he said it was a place 
where "we pigeonhole our dead for future reference." 

As a specimen of this variety of cemetery, Paco offers 
most of interest and variety. The Paco burial place was 
built in 1800 by the city of Manila, under plans executed 
in Spain. The walls, which vary from seven to eight feet 
in thickness, are round in form and are of great beauty. 
Above the vaults is a terrace surmounted by a balustrade. 
The columns of the walls are Doric in design. The in- 
closure, about three acres in extent, is laid out in walks, 
which encircle the walls and divide the park into four 
parts. The chapel to be found within is of pretentious 



design autl massive construction. Back of this will be 
found tlie vaults for children; these number 504; the 
total number of vaults will accommodate 1,782 bodies. 

One of the peculiarities to be noticed by the visitor is 
the recent dates exhibited on the slabs of the different 
vaults. Although the cemetery is nearly one hundred 
years old, as a rule none of these inscriptions shows an 
age greater than five or ten years. This will readily be 
understood when one learns that a system of rental 
exists, and if the rent is not paid when due, evictment 
follows. Until a few years ago this practice was made 
very evident 1)y the display of ])ones thrown about in an 
inclosure at the back of the cemetery, where the}'' found 
a final resting place. This method, however, has been 
changed by the authorities, and now such remains are 
cared for in a way less repulsive to the visitor. 

At La Loma will be foimd the largest burial place in 
^Manila. Here on the low-lying hills the dead are laid 
away more in the manner of otlier countries. Under the 
shadow of the old church rest people of many national- 
ities. In the center of the higher lands will be found 
the Cementerio del Xorte, a well-cared-for spot devoted 
to the A}nericans and foreigners. On the slopes toward 
the west the Chinese are allotted a section, and the rest 
serves as a general place for burial. 

Those who are in the city on All Saints' Day, Novem- 
ber 1, may witness a sight of interest and significance. 
On that day the number of people honoring the occa- 
sion reach into the many thousands, and form a line of 
procession extending for miles. The lighted candles. 



the music, aud the holiday-dressed crowd present a 
picture impressive and lasting. Far into the night, 
after the vast crowd has disappeared, the candles flicker 
and burn over the graves of the La Loma dead. 

The English cemetery is located at San Pedro Macati, 
and at Fort William McKinley America's soldier dead 
find a resting place among the flowers and sunshine of 
the Eastern Tropics. 

MoxuMEXTS OF IManila. — Scattered about Manila in 
the different plazas and gardens are to be found a number 
of monuments erected at different times to perpetuate 
the memory of those who by their deeds have made 
themselves of more than usual importance to the city 
and the Archipelago. Some of these possess unusual 
sculptural merit, and all are worthy of attention. 

Probably the most artistic and well known is that of 
Legaspi and Urdaneta. This monument occupies a 
commanding position at the north end of the Luneta, 
and there, standing together on a marble pedestal, the 
intrepid warrior and dauntless priest keep their silent 
watch over the harbor of ^Manila. The figures are exe- 
cuted in bronze and are excellent specimens of the artist's 
skill. At the time of American occupation the figures 
had not yet been placed in position, and the work of 
completion was undertaken and finished early in 1901. 

In the lower entrance of the Ayuntamiento stands a 
marble figure of the explorer, Sebastian del Caiio. This 
piece of statuary has many visitors to admire its beauty. 
Del Caiio was the companion of Magellan at the time 
of his death, and on the fall of his chief took command 
of the expedition. Del Cano was the first man who ever 



circumnavigated the globe, having taken his little ship, 
the Victoria, around the world, landing back in Lisbon, 
by way of the Caj^e of Good Hope, just three years after 
the expedition of Magellan had set sail. 

Fernando Magellan, the explorer and discoverer of 
the Philippine Islands, is kept green in memory by a 
monument in the form of a tall shaft of marble sur- 
mounted l)y a metal globe, on the south bank of the Pasig 
Eiver between the Bridge of Spain and the Treasury 

In the Botanical Gardens will be seen a noble monu- 
ment to Sebastian Vidal, who donated to the city the 
piece of land now devoted to the public gardens. Tidal 
was an extensive writer on scientific subjects, and through 
his efforts specimens of every class of wood native to the 
Philippines were assembled. 

The Anda Monument, raised in honor of Simeon Anda, 
governor of the Philippines during the Anglo-Spanish 
war of 1762-1764, stands at the end of the Malecon 
Drive on the Pasig Elver, just below the walls of old 
Fort Santiago. 

Miguel de Benavides, the founder of the important 
University of Santo Tomas in 1619, is honored by a 
monument erected in his memory in the plaza on which 
the College of Santo Tomas fronts. 

In Plaza McKinley, and fronting the Cathedral, stands 
a statue of King Charles IV of Spain which was erected 
in 1824. The pedestal supporting the statue bears the 
following inscription: "From the inhabitants of Manila 
to Don Carlos IV of Bourbon, in gratitude for the 
beneficial gift of vaccination." The Filipinos erected 



this statue in 1824 and the Ayimtamiento constructed 
the foundation in the year 1886. 

The Carriedo fountain, standing in the rotonda of 
Sampaloc, is of unpretentious design ; and the great 
public benefactor of the city of Manihi will have his 
greatest monument in the magnificent system of water- 
works now nearly completed. It was through a money 
gift made by Carriedo in 1713 that the public system of 
water distribution was installed. One of the conditions 
of the gift was that no charge for water was to be made 
to poor people. 

In 1896 a statue was erected in honor of Queen 
Isabela, and this occupies a site in Plaza de Malate, 
opposite the Malate Church. 

ISTative Business Life. — It is in the tienda, or small 
shop, that the great business of the vast native population 
is transacted. These places as a rule are so small in size 
that but few customers can find room at the same time, 
but they seldom seem crowded. The work of conducting 
one of these trading places seems to appeal strongly to 
the native's idea of ease and prosperity. Haste in the 
transaction of business is not considered good form 
by him. 

Such places will be found in nearly all parts of the 
city, but it is on the streets given over almost entirely to 
the natives themselves that they chiefly abound. Tlie 
little tiendas, in which rice, salt, tobacco, sugar, and such 
like necessities are to be purchased, furnish little of 
interest except in their incongruity; but there are other 
tiendas of more pretentious character in which the native 
cloths of the Islands may be purchased, and these offer 



tenii)ting displays to the visitor or would-be buyer. On 
Calle San Fernando will be found a row of these jjlaces, 
each occupying its little stall in one great building, where 
many elaborate displays of pina, jusi, and sinamay will 
be found. These toy stores are always presided over by 
women and girls varying in age from six to sixty, and all 
have the oriental fondness for bargaining. Surprising 
assortments of beautifully woven fabrics will be produced 
for inspection, and tales of the amount of business done 
by some of these dealers would scarcely be credited. No 
rush or hurry is to be noticed among the merchants, and 
if sales are not made to-day, why, there are plenty more 
days to come. In this line of commerce the Chinamen 
are noticeable only liy their absence, and the Filipino 
holds it as a sort of natural birthright. 

Calle Eosario, which leads from the west end of the 
Escolta to the Binondo Church, is occupied almost 
exclusively by Chinese merchants and is one of the 
busiest streets of ]\Ianila. The shops viewed from the 
exterior appear, as a rule, to contain but small stocks 
of goods, but on examination it will be found that they 
are well supplied and carry on a vast amount of business. 
It is the principal retail section of the city for dry goods, 
hardware, and novelties, and its patronage is principally 
derived from the native and Chinese streets, and these 
are devoted mostly to Chinese restaurants and dwelling 
places. They present the typical Chinese appearance and 
supply all the attendant odors and cramped conditions 
met with in the ordinary city of China. 

Chueches Without the Walls. — Outside of Intra- 
Tnurop are located a number of churches. Among these 




are found the I'rotestant houses of worship built since 
the advent of the Americans. Of these the most impos- 
ing is the Episcopal Cathedral of St. Mary and St. John, 
situated on Calle Isaac Peral, Ermjta, and usually alluded 
to as ''tlie Cathedral." This is a handsome building of 
stone and concrete. It was completed about two years 
ago at a cost of $150,000. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church occupies a site at 
the corner of Calles Xozaleda and San Luis, Ermita. A 
chapel is located on Calle Cervantes, Santa Cruz, where 
regular services in the native tongue are lield. 

The Presbyterian Cliurch is a recently completed 
building of concrete and stone, and will be found on 
Padre Faura and Dakota Streets, Ermita. This church 
with its roof garden re})resents the more modern style of 
church architecture, and ])resents a handsome appearance 
beside the older specimens of religious design. 

Xative churches are also established by the Presby- 
terian Society, one being located in Malate and the other 
at the corner of Calles Azearraga and Pescadores, Tondo. 

The Y. M. C. A. has oI)tained a position of importance 
and strength in the Philippine Islands, and a building- 
soon to be constructed by the society will cost when 
completed over $100,000. The Y. M. C. A. has until 
very recently occupied quarters with reading room and 
other conveniences in the Walled City, but these have 
been given up pending the construction of the new build- 
ing, and the offices are now in the International Bank- 
building on Plaza Moraga. 

Among the Catholic churches to be found without the 
5001 O. W. 3 



walls the following are to be mentioned as especially 
worthy of notice : The old and historic church of Tondo, 
the Santa Cruz Church at the end of the p]scolta, the 
^lalate C^hurch on Calle Real, Malate, the new steel 
church at San Seliastian, and the Binondo Church. 
With the exception of the steel church, all of these 
l)uildings are of ancient design and workmanshij), and 
show the eifects caused by the ravages of time and storm. 

The San Sebastian, or, as it is commonly known, "the 
steel church," is probably the most conspicuous building 
in Manila. Its towers, of which there are two, are the 
highest in the city and are to be seen. from all parts of 
the town. It is built of steel plates made and fitted in 
Europe and was especially designed to resist earthquakes 
and fire. 

The Binondo Church has been prominent especially 
in the religious labors among the Chinese, and crowded 
about its doorways are to be found, at all hours of the 
day, scores of native floAver venders, who find a ready 
market for their wreaths and bouquets of different 

The Tondo Church has been connected with many of 
the most historic and vital events pertaining to the 
history of the church in the Philippines, and its old walls 
and scarred tower have witnessed many stiri-ing times. 

Santa Cruz Church occupies an important corner in 
the heart of the business center and marks the eastern 
end of the Escolta. Its huge dome and picturesque 
surroundings give it prominence among the landmarks 
of the city, and its old organ is one of the most interesting 
snecimens of the kind to he found in the Islands. 


Side Trips. 

There are a immber of sliort trips ^Yllicll may be made 
about ]\Ianila. These will coASume but a few hours' 
time and will be of interest and a source of pleasure to the 
visitor. The street-car lines reach several of these places, 
and excursions may be made at a trifling expense. 

Santa Ana. — Cars for this district may be boarded on 
the Escolta. The run takes one through an interesting 
part of the city. Paco Cemetery is passed, and after 
leaving the borders of town the line runs through paddy 
fields and rural scenes until Santa Ana is reached. A 
number of charmijig residences will be seen on the banks 
of the Pasig Eiver. In the district of Santa Ana is 
located a splendid old church. The return should be 
made by way of Calle Xozaleda and the Bagumbayan 
Drive, and this brings one past the Botanical Gardens, 
the Post-Oflfice, and several public buildings. 

San Juan. — In reaching San Juan, the cars take the 
traveler past the Santa Cruz Church, the steel church, 
the Eotonda, and through Santa Mesa. To the left will 
be seen Santa Mesa Heights, which during the last two 
years has become a favorite residence spot for many of 
the American and foreign residents. San Juan Bridge 
is at the end of the car line and ^vas the scene of the 
opening of the Philippine insurrection. The return 
should be made by way of San Miguel, transferring at 
the Rotonda, Proceeding along the beautiful residence 
street of Gral. Solano the cars pass the ]Malacahan Palace, 
the residence of the Governor-General. 

Malabon. — In the excursion to Malabon one passes 
through the district of Tondo, which is tlie most strik- 
ingly characteristic native part of Manila. 


Side Trips. 

Caloocaii is the first barrio outside of town, where 
may be found Maypajo, the largest cockpit in the Islands. 
Continuing for a distance of between two and three 
miles Malabon is reached, and here will be seen a number 
of interesting old buildings. The church came in for 
some of the hardships of the insurrection, and shell 
effects are to be seen on its old walls. In Malabon is 
located the only sugar refinery in the Islands. Across 
the river from Malabon are the old Navotas Church and 
marine railway. The time needed to make this trip 
and return will be about four hours. 

Pasay. — The trip to Pasay takes one through Intra- 
muros, past the Luneta, and through the districts of 
Ermita and j\Ialate. Outward-bound cars ])ass by the 
Legaspi Monument ; the old crescent fortification to the 
left of the line and from which the Ijuneta derives its 
name; Camp Wallace, where a number of new Govern- 
ment buildings are to be erected; the Episco])al Cathe- 
dral ; the Observatory ; the Presbyterian Church ; old Fort 
San Antonio de Abad, where the land-transportation 
corral is now located ; and, farther on. to the Pasay race 
track. The return is made by way of Calle Real, Ermita 
and ]\lalate, and here will be seen some of the finest old 
Spanish homes in the city. On the way out it will be 
of great interest to inspect the Observatory, which may 
l)e done on Tuesdays and Saturdays from 8 to 11 a. m. 
This will be found at Xo. SG Calle Padre Faura. It is 
splendidly ecpiipped with the finest scientific instruments 
of the ])resent day. 

La Lo:^ia. — To reach La Loma the Cervantes car is 


Side Trips. 

boarded on the Escolta. The journey lakes one past the 
»Santa Cruz Church, tlie Grand Opera House, the Hospital 
of San Tjazaro, whieli several centuries ago was opened 
as an asylum for lepers, and on to the church and 
cemetery of La Loma. Around this age-worn building 
and burial place was carried on a great deal of the 
fighting about Manila, and in 1899 the blockhouse, off 
to the left of the church, was the scene of an exciting 
engagement. The American troops drove the insurrectos 
back from their fort and over the outlying ridges. 

On the return the cars pass within one block of Bilibid 
Prison, the Insular penitentiary, which shelters as large 
a number of prisoners as nearly any prison in the world. 
This building is on Calle Calzada de Bilibid to the left 
of Calle Cervantes. 

Fort William McKixley. — This fort, said to be the 
largest post of the United States Army, is located on the 
banks of the Pasig Pviver seven miles distant from Manila. 
H may be reached by the street-car line, by the Antipolo 
branch of the Manila and Dagupan Pailroad, by carriage, 
or by way of the Pasig River steamers. The site of the 
fort is one of the most commanding near the city and 
gives an extended and beautiful view of the harbor, 
Laguna de P>ay, and the surrounding country. Extensive 
improvements have been made by the (lovernment, and 
from the old waste land of a few years ago has arisen one 
of the model and one of the most healthful army posts 
to be found anywhere. Its nearness to the city and 
excellent facilities for transportation both by water and 
rail render its site all tliat could bo desired. 


Side Trips. 

Cavite. — Across tlie t)ay, ten miles from tlie capital, 
lies/the old naval town of Cavite. It is a picturesque 
city of small size. It has played its part in the history 
of the East/ and now, with the exception of the busy 
scenes to be found al)out the navy-yard, seems to have 
dropped back again into the fifteenth century. Its 
church and walls are moss-grown and cruml)ling, and 
the clang of modern machinery and din of its naval shops 
vie with medieval streets and structures in awakening 
the interest of the traveler. In the bay fronting Cavite 
stretch the waters over which thundered the guns of 
Admiral Bewey on :\Iay 1, 1898. Avhen ships were sunk 
and ]:»ower destroyed. 

/ The strong old fortifications guarding the town now 
shelter the naval yards. / The sunken Spanish vessels of 
war which two years ago showed their torn upper works 
above the l)lue waters have l)een destroyed or removed 
from the paths of peaceful navigation. 

A trip to Cavite will well repay the visitor. It can be 
made by way of the regular or naval ferry, which make 
frequent trips during the day. A day can be interest- 
ingly spent, or, if one is hurried^ a half day will be 
sufficient for making the round trip and give two hours 
to view the place. 

Laguna de Bay. — The picturesque trip to Lake 
Laguna and its attendant spots is one to be remembered. 
Launches leave Manila each mornings and several days 
may be put in to advantage at the many points of interest 
to be found about the lake sliores and short distances 
inland. From Manila the launch finds its way up the 


Side Trips. 

beautiful I'asig, passing J'andacan, Santa Ana, San 
Pedro Macati, tlie ruins of Guadalupe, Fort McKinley, 
and Pasig. The springs at Los Banos should be visited. 
Excellent accommodations -will be found at this place. 
At Pagsanjan, the head of lake navigation, tlie beautiful 
gorge of the same name is a feature which should not be 
missed. The trip through its rushing waters hy small 
banca will supply excitement enough to repay any hard- 
ships encountered. Calamba, the birthplace of Rizal, a 
town of some eleven tliousand inhal)itants, is situated four 
miles across the lake from Los Banos, and from this point 
native carriages may he secured to make the journey 
inland, through a beautiful country and along roads lined 
with' orange groves, to the Taal Volcano, an island in 
Lake Taal. The- crater rises to an elevation of over a 
tliousand feet above the waters of the lake and is about 
a mile in diameter. Aside from a matter of sentiment 
or history, a trip to Taal is more satisfying to the tourist 
than a trip to Vesuvius. 

The ascent of the crater is well worth making, and 
the view from the summit is grand. More or less 
volcanic activity is always evident, but it is now more 
than thirty years since TaaFs last destructive eruption. 
At that time it overflowed its bounds and great loss of 
life and property followed. 

The distance from Calamba to Lake Taal is fifteen 
miles, and two days should be allowed for the journey 
and ascent. On return to Calamba tlie launch is again 
boarded and the homeward trip entered upon. 

MoNTALBAN. — The Antipolo extension of tlie ^Fanila 


Side Trips. 

Kaihvay Compaii}- offers a sliort trip of some twenty 
miles which will give one a very good idea of the agricul- 
tural country immediately surrounding Manila. It 
presents some charming Ijits of scenery. This line 
reaches the little town of ]\Iontalban, near which spot 
the great General Lawton was killed, and a three-mile 
drive from there brings the traveler to the new reservoir 
from which the city will receive its water supply. The 
road follows the banks of the beautiful Mariquina River 
and presents some picturesque vistas of gorge and moun- 
tain scenery. 

At the historic place of Antipolo is the church in which 
the famous image of the Virgin of Antipolo is kept, and 
the yearly festival held in honor of the Virgin attracts 
visitors from all parts of the Islands. 

The railway passes through the IMariquina Valley, and 
along its line much of the fighting of the insurrection 
was done. Several trains leave daily, and one day may 
he very pleasantly devoted to making the round trip. 

Baguio. — Situated at a distance of one hundred and 
seventy miles from ]\Ianila, nestling among the pine-clad 
mountains of Benguet and at an altitude of about five 
thousand feet, lies Baguio, the summer capital of the 
Philippine Islands. What Simla is to India, Baguio is 
to the Philippines. Here within a few miles of the city 
one may enjoy the benefits of a complete change in tem- 
perature and climate, and revel amid some of the grandest 
scenery imaginable. At nighttime the mountain air is 
cool enough to make the cheerful log fires of the hotel 
and home comfortable and soudit for. The climate is 

HIB|igCPPn-'nTr"Tn-''n -n ■'■-1 ■!■ 1 -nrjigijgp^ 


Side Trips. 

semitropical, and many varieties of trees and shrubs met 
with in tlie temperate zone are abundant. Its great ad- 
vantage as a health resort was early recognized by the 
civil authorities, and a sanitarium has been established 
by the Insular Government. A similar institution is 
also being constructed by the United States Army. Good 
hunting abounds in the mountains, and improvements 
are being continually made in the way of providing 
facilities for athletic and outdoor sports. Baguio already 
has two good hotels. Some of the fine buildings recently 
erected are the residences of the Governor-General and 
Commissioner Forbes. Here also is located Camp John 
Hay, a post of the United States Army, and only a few 
miles distant, at Trinidad, is the Government agricultural 
experiment station for this district. 

The trip to Baguio is made by railway as far as Camp 
Xo. 1 beyond Dagupan, and from thence the journey 
is continued over the famoiis mountain road of Benguet. 
This leads the traveler over one of the most picturesque 
roads to be met with anywhere; it makes its tortuous 
way through a wild, mountainous district, through gorges 
and chasms and by rushing torrents and streams, into the 
very heart of the great hills and mountains of northern 
Luzon. The tribe native to Benguet is the Igorot, the 
most prominent among the non-Christian tribes of the 
Islands. The trip in itself is more than worth the taking, 
and, if one has the time to spend several days in explora- 
tions and side trips, he will come away with a feeling of 
regret, and liring with him memories which will never 
be forgotten. Good accommodations will be met witli, 


Side Trips. 

and no hardships are to be experienced in going to 

The Southern Islands. — Very fortunate indeed is 
the tourist who can devote several weeks to making a 
leisurely voyage through the southern islands of the 
Archipelago. It is in the truest sense an inland-sea trip, 
and the hundreds of islands both great and small form a 
constantly changing panorama of endless, moving scenery 
upon which one never tires of gazing. The greater part 
of the year smooth seas and delightful weather will be 
encountered, and to the "sensitive" sailor this item is 
not lightly to be passed by. 

The trip can be made by several steamers sailing on 
regular schedules, Ijy vessels of the Coast Guard service, 
and, at times, by chartered Army transports. The round 
trip may be b}' one vessel, Imt if time permits the voyage 
may be extended and made more complete by transferring 
to other steamers, which will break the scheduled route 
and permit the traveler to visit other places which other- 
wise would be missed, Tlie most important cities of the 
southern islands are Cebu, Iloilo, and Zamboanga, but 
a number of stops are made at various smaller ports, all 
of which will provide something new to interest the 

What will proljably be of the greatest interest to the 
tourist will be found in the Moro country. From time 
unknown these followers of the Star and Crescent have 
ruled and controlled a number of islands of the Sulu 
Group. ^Mindanao has always been a stronghold of tlie' 
■ ^toros and until the advent of the American the rule of 


Side Trips. 

the datto in this great island was supreme among his 

One of the most inspiring sights to he seen on this 
trip through the southern islands is the great Mayon 
Volcano in Albay Province, southern Luzon. Mayon is 
pronounced by geologists one of the most perfect volcanic 
cones in the world. 

Conclusion. — In the foregoing brief sketch of Manila 
but scant space has been available for more than the 
merest touching on, or mentioning of, a few of the many, 
many interesting, instructive, and delightful points and 
places to be met with in and about the capital and 
metropolis of the Philippine Islands. To the student, 
tlie traveler, the man of business, and to the idler to 
whom the world's capitals and cities are as an open book, 
and whose streets are plainly printed lines, Manila and 
the Philippines present a new volume whose pictures 
will be found enchanting, whose legends, history, and 
lore will be found delightful, and all printed upon pages 
of the greatest opportunity. 

As has been said, Manila is a city of contrasts. The 
sixteenth century and the twentieth are to be found side 
by side. Xew methods are rapidly superseding the old, 
and the rapidity of the change Imt accentuates the 
contrasting conditions. 



^ooks on the Philippines. 

1. The Philippine Islands. John Foreman. 

2. Tlie Philippine Islands. D. C. Worcester. 

3. The Philippine Islands. Fred W. Atkinson. 

4. Tlie Gems of the East. A. H. Savage Landor. 

5. Interesting Manila. Pvev. G. A. Miller. 

G. Ruins and Pvomance of Guadalupe. Rev. G. A. Miller. 
7. Philippine Folk-Lore Stories. John M. Miller. 
S. Stories of Long Ago in the Philippines. D. 0. McGovney. 
9. In Lotus Land ( Poems ) . M. M. Norton. 

10. A Kingdom of the Sea (Poems). M. M. Norton. 

11. The Handbook of the Philippines. Hamilton M. Wright. 

Climate and Health. 

The climate of Manila is greatly misunderstood in 
America and other countries. The climate is tropical, 
but the torrid heat is much modified by the proximity 
of the sea and tbe presence of large mountains which 
practically surround it on all sides. The temperature 
rarely reaches 100 degrees Fahrenheit in the shade, and 
it sometimes falls as low as 60 degrees. The mean 
temperature of the year is about 80 degrees. The follow- 
ing table from the Manila Observatory and the United 
States Government reports shows the mean temperature 
of Manila and that of four leading cities of the United 
States for each month of the year : 




Mean Monthly "Uemperature, 1880-1906. 


December . 
January _- . 
February _ 

April- _ 
May -- 




September . 
October -_. 




























































°F. , 





69 i 





















The heat we feel here is due to the excessive humidity 
of the atmosphere. The nights are, however, almost 
alwaj^s cool, and one can sleep comfortably and thus 
regain the strength lost during the more or less enervating 
licat of the dav. During the months from Xovemher 


Mean Monthly 'temperature, 1880-1906. 

to April the climate is as line as that of soutlieni 

Typhoons and earthquakes sometimes visit the xVrehi- 
pelago, bnt as a general rule they do little damage. Ty- 
phoons, although the name may conjure up all sorts 
of dreaded horrors, are not in any sense to be compared 
with the cyclones that often sweep over parts of the 
United States. If we might figure out a relative com- 
parison between these two destructive agents, those who 
have experienced both would say that it takes about 
twelve typhoons to make one good cyclone. 

As to the health conditions in Manila, we are proud 
to say that the city is in much better sanitary condition 
than many cities of its size in the United States. Due 
to the untiring work of Dr. Victor G. Heiser, Director 
of the Bureau of Health, and his excellent corps of 
assistants, Manila has become a model sanitary city. 
When the new sewerage system, costing over $2,000,000, 
is installed, Manila will be one of the healthiest cities 
in the world. 

Customs and Baggage Regulations. 

The ports of entry in the Philippine Islands at which 
foreign vessels may enter are Manila, Island of Luzon ; 
Uoilo, Island of Panay; Cebu, Island of Cebu ; Zam- 
boanga. Island of Mindanao; and Jolo, in the Sulu 

Travelers ari'iving in the Philippine Islands are 
entitled to l)i'ing with them Avearing apparel, toilet 
objects and articles for personal use, bed and table linen, 
books, portable tools and instruments, theatrical costumes. 


Customs and Baggage Regulations. 

jewels, table service, and like articles, which bear evident 
signs of having been used and which are in quantities 
proportionate to the profession and position of the person 
bringing the same. 

Travelers who have in their possession any articles 
which are found to be dutiable by the customs authorities 
may leave such articles in bond at the custom-house 
without paying any duty thereon, and upon leaving the 
Philippine Islands such dutiable articles are delivered 
to the persons owning the same on board the vessel on 
which they leave the Islands. 

Upon the arrival of a foreign vessel at any one of 
the entry ports in the Philippine Islands, passengers are 
furnished by the customs authorities a passenger's bag- 
gage entry and declaration. On this declaration the 
passenger is required to fill in the number of pieces of 
baggage which he is l)ringing and also to specify any 
dutiable articles which may be contained therein. Hand 
baggage is examined on board the boat and passengers 
are permitted to take the same directly on shore with 
them. The remaining pieces of baggage, such as heavy 
trunks, bags, or cases, are checked and taken ashore by 
the baggage contractor, and the examination of heavy 
baggage is made by the customs authorities at the custom- 

The customs authorities have endeavored to make the 
landing of passengers at ports of entry as easy as pos- 
sible, and very little delay is experienced in leaving the 
vessel, on account of the ready facilities which are pro- 
vided by the contractor botli for the carrying of pas- 
sengers and baggage from ship to shore. 



Customs and Baggage Regulations. 

Passengers leaving the Pliilippine Islands are subject 
to no customs' inspection whatever. Personal baggage is 
transferred from the shore to the ship by the agents of 
the vessel on which passengers are leaving and no customs 
permits are needed or required for the loading of the 
baggage on board the vessel. 

'UaBle of Money Values. 

An American dollar is equal to two Philippine pesos. 
The following are the values in United States gold coin 
of the leading foreign coins in use in the principal com- 
mercial countries in the Orient: 


Philippine Islands __ 

Chinese Empire 

Japan ,_: 





Straits Settlements - 






5001 0. W. 4 


Haikwan tael 










Mark- ._ 


in United 
States cur- 



Railway Communication. 

The Philippine Archipelago, until the last year or two, 
had but one railroad in the wliole length and breadth of 
its islands. This was a line from j\Ianila to Dagupan, 
on the Lingayen Gulf, about one hundred miles in length. 
Eeeently extensions have been made, and branch lines 
opened through rich agricultural districts. New lines 
are under construction both in Luzon and the southern 
islands, and when completed they will add much to the 
prosperity of the country. 

The need of better transportation facilities for han- 
dling the large crops of hemp, copra, rice, sugar, and 
other products was early recognized by the present civil 
government and efforts were made by the Washington 
authorities to enlist the aid of capital in the United 
States in the construction of the new lines. Success was 
met with and four new roads — in all, over one thousand 
miles in length — are now being constructed. They 
promise to be big dividend i)ayers within a few years. 

Steamship Information. 

Many of the large trans-Pacific liners make Manila a 
port of call. The Pacific Mail, the Toyo Kisen Kaisha, 
and the Boston Steamship Company all operate first-class 
steamers calling regularly at the Philippine metropolis. 
From San Francisco, Tacoma, and Seattle there are 
regular lines of large steamers calling at Hongkong, and 
connecting with the regular liners leaving that port for 
Manila every Tuesday, Friday, and Saturday, returning 
from Manila on the same days. 

The Canadian Pacific Eailway Comfjany operates one 
of the finest lines from Vancouver to Hongkong, and it 


Steamship Information. 

is within tlie bounds of probability that before many 
years all of its vessels will find it necessary to make 
Manila a refrnlar port of call. 

All the steamers from tlie Pacific coast call at Kobe, 
Yokohama, Xagasaki, and Shanghai, and their Hongkong 
agents have definite arrangements with the steamers 
plying between Hongkong and Manila to provide the 
best accommodations possible for the trans-Pacific pas- 
sengers to the Philippines. 

The companies running steamers between Hongkong 
and ]\Iani]a are the China Navigation Company, Limited 
(agents in Hongkong, Messrs. Butterfield & Swire), 
operating the Taming and Tcan and the four Australian 
liners Changshq, Cliingtu, Tsinan, and Taiijuan. The 
China-Manila Steam Xavigation Company, Limited 
(Hongkong agents, ^lessrs. Shewan, Tomes & Co.), 
operating the Piuhi and Zafivo, and the Indo-China 
Steam Xavigation Company, Limited ( Hongkong agents, 
Messrs. Jardine, Matheson & Co., Limited), operating 
the Loongsang and Yucnsang. 

The steamers of these companies are practically new 
and have been on the run only three or four years. 
There are no difficulties whatever in getting to or from 
Manila, and the tourist need only concern himself about 
what to do when in Manila, and where to go and what 
to see in the Islands. 

The Government of the United States in the Philip- 
pine Islands, recognizing the necessity of catering to the 
tourist, has lately subsidized three of the leading steam- 
ship companies engaged in the interisland trade, and 
has insisted u])Ou their maintaining a high standard 


Steamship Information. 

of efficienc}'. The companies operating under Govern- 
ment subsidy are the Compafiia General de Tabacos de 
Filipinas, Messrs. Inchausti & Co., and the Compafiia 
Marltima. These three companies practically divide the 
trade routes of the Philippines between them and keep 
a regular schedule. The steamers, being under Govern- 
ment inspection, are all clean and up to date, and every 
attention is given to tourists. Trips of from five to 
twenty-four days' duration may be made most comfort- 
ably among the beautiful islands of the Archipelago. 
All steamers are fitted with electric lights and distillers, 
have modern cuisine, and carry passengers to many points 
of interest. 

For those going to Singapore oi; wishing to visit 
Java, the following routes of travel from Manila, Cebu, 
and Zamboanga are available : 

(1) From Manila direct to Singapore via Spanish 
Mail, monthly sailings. 

(2) From Cebu via Zamboanga, Sandakan, and La- 
buan to Singapore, North German Lloyd, regular four- 
weekly sailings. 

(3) From Zamboanga to Jolo, Sandakan, Labuan, and 
Singapore, North German Lloyd, sailings every two 

(4) From Zamboanga to Menado, Sanguir Islands 
and return. North German Lloyd, sailings once a month. 
First-class tourists' tickets from Zamboanga to Menado 
and return by the same boat with eight days' stay in 

(5) From Menado to Ternate, Celebes, Moluccas, and 
Java to Singapore. Eegular three-weekly sailings. 


^Police and Fire Protection. 

Manila has as fine police and fire departments as any 
city of its size in the United States. 

The fire department, as it exists to-day, was organized 
hy the veteran chief of the New York fire department, 
Hugh Bonner, and the manner in which large conflagra- 
tions have been extinguished has been a surprise to 
other cities of the Orient, some of which are now 
trjdng to emulate the Philippine metropolis in this 

The percentage of crime is indeed small in Manila 
as compared with other cities of its size in the United 
States and foreign countries. The offenses against the 
law are as a rule of a petty nature. 

The electric-light system newly installed by American 
capital which makes bright the many narrow and tortuous 
streets of the old city is the finest in the Far East. 


The city schools are perfectly organized and thor- 
oughly graded. It is estimated that in all of the 
schools of the city there are 25,000 pupils enrolled. 
There are twenty primary, four intermediate, and two 
secondary schools, with an enrollment of 8,721. In- 
cluded in this number is the American school, a regularly 
graded primary, intermediate, and high school, with an 
enrollment of 236 ; the School of Business, with 216 
pupils, and the Manila High School, with an enrollment . 
of 451 pupils. 

Every pupil receives industrial instruction for an 
average of three hours a day. The making of hats and 
embroidery is being emphasized. In several districts the 



sale of articles made by the children has put this kind of 
instruction on a self-supporting basis. 

Beside the al)ove are the Insular Philippine Xormal 
School on Calle Padre Faura, the Philippine School of 
Arts and Trades on Calle Arroceros, and the Philippine 
Medical School on the Malecon. 

In addition to the foregoing public schools there are 
a large number of Catholic and private schools worthy of 
special mention. Among these should be mentioned, 
first, the University of Santo Tomas on Plaza Santo 
Tomas, the Jesuit College at the Observatory on Calle 
Padre Faura, the Ateneo de Manila on Calle Arzobispo, 
and the Liceo de Manila on Calle Dulurabayan. 




Leading ^iotels. 

Metropole liotel, Plaza Goiti, at Santa Cruz Bridge. 
Eecently erected in a central location overlooking the 
Pasig River. 

Hotel de Francia, corner of the Escolta and San 
Jacinto, in the heart of tlie business district. Head- 
quarters of the Carnival Association. 

Bay View Hotel, 11-29 San Jose, Ermita. This hotel 
is pleasantly situated on the bay shore. 

The Hotel Continental, 35 Plaza Goiti. 

The Hotel Delmonico, 273 Palacin. Tntramuros. 

New Oriento Hotel, 121 Eeal, Tntramuros. 

Army and Navy Hotel, 5-15 Eeal, Malate. 

Besides these there are other hotels and private board- 
ing houses scattered about the citv where the visitor can 
ol)tain accommodations. 


Banking hours, 10 to 3; Saturdays, 10 to 12. 

Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, Plaza 

International Banking Corporation. 15-23 Plaza Mo- 
raga. Depository of the Civil Government of the Phil- 
ippine Islands. 

Banco Espanol-Pilipino, 10 Plaza Cervantes. 

Chartered Bank of India. Australia and China, S-i 

Plaza Cervantes. 



Steamship Offices. 

All the steamship offices are in the neighborhood of 
Plaza Moraga at the end of the Escolta, 

Cable Offices. 

Both cable offices are at No. 21 Calle Carenero, close 
to the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. 

T^ost and Telegraph Offices. 

The Manila Post-Office is on Plaza Lawton at the foot 
of the Santa Cruz Bridge. The telegraph office is under 
the direction of the Bureau of Posts and is located in 
the Post-Office building. 


Army and Xavy Club, 238 Calle Palacio, Intramuros. 
Caledonian Club, 420 Rotonda, Sampaloc. 
Columbia Club, Isaac Peral, Ermita. 
Casino Espanol de Manila, 12 Pasaje de Perez, 

Elks Club, corner San Luis and San Jose, Ermita. 
French Club, G7 Calle Alcala, Santa Cruz. 
Tiffin Rooms, 31 Plaza Moraga, Binondo. 
University Club, 60 Real, Ermita, corner San Luis. • 

Jlthletic Clubs. 

Manila Athletic Association, Pavilion, "Wallace Field, 

Manila Auto Club, 130 Escolta, Binondo. 

:\ranila Boat Club, 131 Calle Marina, Ermita. 

Manila Golf Club, office at 851 Calle Iris, links at 


Jllhletic Clubs. 

Manila Lawn Tennis Clul), grounds at San Marcelino, 

Sociedad de Tiradores (Fencing Societ}^), 284: Bilibid 
Viejo, Quiapo. 

boards of Trade. 

Manila Merchants' Association, 76 Escolta. 
Camara de Comercio, Pasaje de Perez. 
Camara de Comercio Filipina, 39 Plaza Cervantes. 
Chinese Chamber of Commerce, 8 Salazar, Binondo. 
Manila Chaml^er of Commerce, -i Olivares, Binondo. 

Consular Representatives. 

Dean of Consular Corps, W. J. Kenny. 

Great Britain: W. J. Kenny, consul-general; H. 
Home, vice-consul, 100 Anloague; J. X. Sidebottom, 
pro-consul, IG Carenero, Binondo. 

China : Su Yu Tchsu, consul-general, 48 Plaza Calde- 
ron de la Barca, Binondo. 

Germany : Dr. F. Grunenwald, consul, 346 Calle Real, 

Japan: S. Akatsuka, consul; K. Ito, vice-consul; 776 
Calle Iris. 

Spain : A. Baldasano y Topete, consul-general ; A. F. 
Arias, vice-consul, 162 Calle Alix, Sampaloc. 

Belgium: Charles le Yionnois, consul, 167 San Mar- 

France : Francois Labrouche, consul ; Count Leo de 
Sieyes de Veynes, vice-consul, 51 Calle Soledad, Binondo. 

Russia: Count Leo de Sieyes de Veynes, vice-consul, 
51 Calle Soledad, Binondo. 


Consular Representatives. 

Argentine: A. Manigot, consul, 13 Plaza Santa Ana, 

Austria-Hungary : P. Kraft, consul, 240 Peal, Malate. 

Brazil: M. Henry, consul, 97 Calle Marina, Ermita. 

Chile : Antonio Malveliy, consul, G4 San Marcelino. 

Denmark: F. S. Jones, consul, IG Carenero, Binonclo. 

Italy : F. Peyes, consul, 49 Calle Xoria. 

Liberia : P. Summers, consul, 68 Calle Herran, Malate. 

Mexico: F. Correa, acting consul, Compaiiia General 
de Tabacos de Filipinas, 15 Marques de Comillas, Paco. 

ISTetherlands : A. C. Crebas, acting consul, 227 Muelle 
de la Peina. 

Norway: W. G. Stevenson, consul, 323 Muelle del 

Nicaragua : Trindad E. Lacayo, consul, 7 Magallanes, 

Portugal: Miguel Ossorio, consul, 20 Carenero, Bi- 

Sweden : W. G. Stevenson, consul, 323 Muelle del Pey. 

Switzerland : E. Sprungli, consul, 28 Calle David, Bi- 
nondo; J. Preisig, vice-consul, 95 Calle Noria, Quiapo. 


•Manila Grand Opera House, 313 Calle Cervantes, 
Santa Cruz. 

Zorilla Theater, San Pedro and Bilibid, Santa Cruz. 

Libertad Theater, 583 Calzada de Bilibid. 

Pizal Theater, 155 Calle Azcarraga, Tondo. 

Orpheum Theater, 15 Calle Echague. Nightly vaude- 
ville performances. 



Museo de la Universidad Santo Tomas, 139 Calle 
Santo Tomas, Intramuros. Open to the public on Sun- 
days from 9 to 11 a. m. 

Museo del Ateneo, 157 Arzobispo, Intramuros. Open 
Sundays from 9 to 11.30 a. m. 


American Circulating Library, corner Calles Recoletos 
and Cabildo, Intramuros. Open week days 8 to 13 a. m., 
3 to 5.30 p. m., and evenings. 


Further information regarding the Philippines or her 
industries will be cheerfully furnished by addressing. The 
Publicity Committee, Manila Merchants' Association, 
]\Ianila, p. I. 




Los Angeles 

This book is DUE on the last date stam 



<UL30 20D4 

-UK'S tMRt" 


Form L9-Series 4939 





With projected improvements 
0" Luneta Extension 
g Scale of Meters ^^j 

Irrni i iii l — .<* ■ \ ) 

B C 




AA 000 758 999 7 

y^ ■•■